新西兰首位女外长上任,酷的不仅仅是文身

时间:2020-11-9 作者:admin

原标题:新西兰首位女外长上任,酷的不仅仅是文身

不到一个月前,新西兰现任总理、工党党魁杰辛达•阿德恩以压倒性的优势获得连任,执政党工党赢得政府组阁权。但那时,没有人想到长期担任国会议员的毛利人纳纳娅•马胡塔会成为新任外交事务部长。

即使是最有经验的政治观察人士也对这项任命感到意外,对于新西兰的土著居民来说马胡塔的上任具有重大意义。

作为首位担任这一职务的毛利女性,马胡塔说她感到“非常荣幸”。

Less than a month ago, when New Zealand‘s Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern just won a landslide election victory, nobody had thought Nanaia Mahuta, a longtime Maori parliamentarian, was going to be her pick for the foreign affairs portfolio。 That appointment caught even the most seasoned political watchers by surprise and also carries great significance for the indigenous population in New Zealand。

Being the first female Maori to assume that role, Mahuta said she was “hugely honored。”

“I follow in the line of a long legacy of firsts for women, and I hope that many other women of Maori descent, mixed descent, across New Zealand will see this as lifting the ceiling once again on areas that have been very much closed to us in terms of professional opportunities,” she said as she stepped into the office。

The quest for cultural preservation

新上任的女外长引起了国际媒体的关注:不仅是因为她毛利女性的身份,还有她嘴唇下方的毛利传统文身。为了纪念去世的父亲,2016年马胡塔在下颌纹上了这个图样,却因此引发了大量争议。

毛利人理事会执行主席马修·塔卡基将这些新闻称为“耻辱”,称它们“在社交媒体上引发了仇恨浪潮”。

塔卡基的观点将一个影响毛利人群体的周期性问题推到了台前——许多毛利人因纹有传统文身在公共场合受到歧视。

Mahuta‘s appointment attracted international media attention。 But a prevailing headline focus on her moko kauae, a traditional Maori female chin tattoo she has had since 2016, has drawn denunciation from prominent representatives of the Maori community。

Calling the headlines a “disgrace,” Maori Council executive chairman Matthew Tukaki said they have “triggered a wave of hate across social media, referencing the articles and the headlines to then pour hate on someone else。”

“The headlines are both offensive and have now been weaponized by racists and keyboard warriors,” he added。

Putting aside the controversy sparked by the headlines, Tukaki‘s remarks did underline a periodic problem that has affected New Zealand’s Maori population, for which reports of discrimination against people wearing traditional tattoos in public venues and work places are one of the manifestations。

A Maori woman in traditional clothing with a facial tattoo in Rotorua。 /Getty

马胡塔不仅是国际政坛上极为罕见的拥有面部文身的政府官员,更是第一位把毛利传统面部文身带进国家议会的人。但身处舆论中心,马胡塔多次强调,这文身意味着身份的认同和文化自豪。

现在,马胡塔已成为新西兰在国际舞台上的新面孔,已准备好将其信息传达给更广泛的受众。

Mahuta, however, is not only among the very few of those carrying facial moko in national politics but also the first to take it to parliament。 Stressing numerous times the merits of enabling cultural expression and pride, she has also been a part of the recent resurgence in Maori women receiving the traditional ink, a practice that brings their ancestry, history and status out to the surface。

In taking these steps, Mahuta has encouraged women to display their ancestral heritage while sending a strong message to wider society。

Now serving as New Zealand‘s new face on the international stage, Mahuta is poised to convey her message to an even broader audience。 “The first face that people see at an international level is someone who speaks, looks and sounds like a Maori,” Rukuwai Tipene-Allen, a political journalist for Maori Television, told CNN。 “Wearing the markings of her ancestors shows people that there are no boundaries to Maori and where they can go。”

Who is Mahuta?

马胡塔的父亲是第五世毛利王科罗基·马胡塔的养子,姑姑则是已故的首位毛利女王提·阿泰。

在得知马胡塔被任命时,许多毛利人活动家肯定了马胡塔在毛利人社区中的地位和贡献。作为一位资深的国会议员,她长期专注的工作也激励着民众。

On her appointment, an array of Maori activists praised Mahuta‘s highly respected and important role in the Maori community。 While not the first Maori to hold an office of such high profile, Mahuta’s long and dedicated service in parliament as well as previous governments is a source of inspiration for her people, a population that is overrepresented in the lower rung of New Zealand‘s workforce。

Hundreds of Maori protesters gather to demonstrate against what they say is the disproportionate number of Maori children taken by social service agencies from their families, outside parliament in Wellington, New Zealand, July 30, 2019。 /Reuters

Daughter of a prominent Maori politician, Mahuta was deeply engaged in and heavily influenced by her father‘s work。 She had the first hand privilege to witness some of the achievements her father secured。 Coupled with her strong links to the Maori King Movement, a fertile ground for her entry into politics was laid upon the young learner。

马胡塔从政已有20余年,她于1996年当选国会议员,曾在新西兰前总理海伦·克拉克执政期间担任海关部长、青年发展部长、地方政府事务部长等职务。在阿德恩政府的第一个任期,马胡塔担任内阁部长一职,负责毛利发展事务和地方政府事务。

2018年,马胡塔被BBC选为全球最具影响力的100名女性之一。

She was elected to parliament in 1996 and has since worked studiously to advocate for her Tainui electorate。 She has also held portfolios including trade, customs, Maori affairs and youth development and was once named by the BBC as one of the top 100 most influential women。

Accompanying Mahuta‘s 24-year political career is a long list of accomplishments she has made in a rather humble, low-profile style。 “I’ve learned what to worry about and what not to worry about – I don‘t want to be distracted,” she told the Guardian。

Ripe for the top diplomat post

即使作为毛利皇室的近亲,马胡塔的政治生涯也不是一帆风顺的。

作为一名工党成员,她曾一度陷入进退两难的境地,因为她所在的政党推动通过有争议的海岸和海床法法案,但这一法案遭到了毛利人的抵制。起初,马胡塔站在反对该法案的前沿,但当法案草案被两次修改后,她改变了立场。

“对我来说,跨出这一步意味着面向泰努伊(一个毛利部落)选民的大门打开了……要与一个致力于把事情做好的政府合作,我们需要从某个地方开始。”马胡塔表示。

尽管这一立场并不会取悦自己的支持者,但马胡塔却成为了一个能看到更大前景的实用主义者。

Mahuta‘s political career has not been devoid of challenges。 

A member of the Labour Party, she was once caught in a dilemma over her party‘s push to pass the controversial foreshore and seabed bill, an attempt that was met with fierce opposition by her people as a whole。 At first Mahuta stood at the forefront of those opposing the bill, but when its draft was altered twice she then opted to support it。 “It seems to me by taking this step the door is open for the electorate of Tainui (one of the Maori tribal confederations)。。。 to work with a government who is committed to trying to get things right。 We’ve all got to start somewhere,” she said after making that decision。

People gather to protest the foreshore and seabed bill。 /Getty

Though the stance upset her own base, Mahuta emerged as a pragmatist who can see the bigger picture。 “Even though that particular act didn‘t have the support of her iwi I think her iwi and her political place was able to see beyond that,” Shane Te Pou, a former Labour candidate, campaign manager and executive member, told RNZ, a New Zealand public-service radio broadcaster。

不仅如此,多年来马胡塔一直恰当地处理着伊维族、毛利部落和工党之间不断变化的关系。

阿德恩在宣布对马胡塔的任命时表示:“她能快速建立良好的关系,这是外交事务职位的关键职责之一。”

Mahuta has also navigated the changing relationships between iwi, Maori tribes and her party, which amasses Maori‘s generations-old support but in recent years has been seen by some to have shunned key issues affecting their community。 Nonetheless, Mahuta’s firm grip on the support of her electorate has not faded, and that is attributed largely to her role of bridging governments in both local and central levels, a great asset she possessed in promoting future opportunities for her people。

“She is someone who builds fantastic relationships very quickly and that is one of the key jobs in a foreign affairs role,” Ardern said when announcing Mahuta‘s appointment。